Founding and Founders: of constitutional laws and
Founding and Founders
Click on the button to get the indicated file
for the United States— Correct version, local to
this site, with annotations and links to other pages on this and
Constitution for the United
States — Correct version, local to this site, with minimal
annotations and no local links other than among this document
set, for portability across multiple platforms and browsers.
This one can be downloaded and used at your site.
Constitution for the
United States — Color-coded to indicate passages violated
or not properly implemented, with links to Reed-Kellogg digrams
of some of the clauses.
for the United States — Formatted to print on two sides of
one letter-size sheet of paper.
Founding-Era Translations of the
United States Constitution — The Constitution was
translated from English into German and Dutch at ratification,
for the substantial number of people in Pennsylvania and New
York who did not speak English. This document sets out the
different texts and translations alongside one another.
in the Federal Convention of 1787, by James Madison.
These are the proceedings of the Constitutional Convention held
in Philadelphia. an essential guide to interpreting the intent
of the Framers. Also see the mirror site at TeamInfinity.
Scanned images of the original pages of U.S.
Constitution and Bill of Rights. See also the Charters
of Freedom collection at the National Archives and Records
U.S. Constitution, page 1
U.S. Constitution, page 2
U.S. Constitution, page 3
U.S. Constitution, page 4
Letter of Transmittal
Bill of Rights
U.S. Constitution — Official
but incorrect version you will often see.
Annotated Constitution — GPO, CRS [ASCII, PDF], 2444p.
Project of the Congressional Research Service (CRS) and
Government Printing Office (GPO). Annotated references to
Supreme Court decisions arranged by provision and amendment.
Acrobat reader needed for PDF files can be downloaded from here.
Some very large files.
Constitution Annotated — Findlaw rendition. Links to case
files on their site.
Founders' Constitution — Online documentation from the
University of Chicago.
Declaration of Independence — Original
Declaration of Independence — Modernized
Rough Draught of the Declaration of Independence
Papers — Various essays criticizing the proposed
Constitution and urging changes. See the collections at Iahushua
Debates in the Several Conventions on the Adoption of the
Federal Constitution, Jonathan Elliot (1836) — A
collection of documents, including proceedings of the ratifying
History of the Bill of Rights — From the English Bill of
Rights through the proposed amendments of the state ratifying
conventions to the drafts debated in Congress before adopting
the final version.
Constitutions — State constitutions in use from
independence through adoption of the U.S. Constitution, for
which they served as models.
Sources — Extensive collection of links and documents from
Quotes — Some quotes that enlighten understanding of
History & Economics Related
to Constitutional Matters — Articles on facts and
The Athenian Constitution,
Aristotle (350 BC). Also see the site at MIT.
of the Iroquois Confederacy.
of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (Marquis de
Lafayette, Thomas Jefferson, 1789) — Manifesto of the French
Revolution, expressing its ideals.
of Constitutional Interpretation, Jon Roland
the Fourteenth Amendment was to Protect All Rights,
to render documents — Short manual on scanning printed
documents and converting them into web pages.
Bouvier Law Dictionary. Also
available as two self-extracting executables: Part 1 and Part 2.
Landmark Court Decisions —
Local archive, with commentaries on the rulings and the
Court Decisions — Findlaw collection.
Court Decisions — Cornell collection. Only has recent
Constitutional Law — Cornell archive.
Project at Yale Law School — Documents in law, history and
Records — Library of Congress collection.
Debates — Library of Congress collection.
Congressional Documents and Debates — Library of Congress
of Delegates to Congress — Library of Congress collection.
of the Continental Congress — Library of Congress
Pittman — Constitutionalist, and scholar of George Mason,
a major contributor to the Virginia Declaration of Rights,
Declaration of Independence, and Bill of Rights. Collection of
Constitution Center — Mainly a bricks and mortar museum,
but has online materials.
Government — Starting point for U.S. Government
Historical Documents — Collection at the University of
Legal Sourcebook — Collection of documents and links at
Legal Sourcebook — Collection of documents and links at
Code (Articles of Agreement) — Pirates often had written
constitutions, too, and many pre-dated those of the United
Dead links — Please help us
The Constitution is a written instrument. As such, its
meaning does not alter. That which it meant when it was
adopted, it means now.
— South Carolina v. United States, 199
U.S. 437, 448 (1905)
the Founders, Thomas G. West — Defense of the
Founders' views and actions on slavery, women's rights, property
rights, voting rights, and other controversial issues.
Jefferson Papers at the Library of Congress
of Virginia, Electronic Text Center — Have writings of
Jefferson on Politics and Government — Things Thomas
Madison Legacy — Archive of James Madison University.
Institute Benjamin Franklin archive — The Founder who
contributed most to the concepts of federalism.
Washington Papers at the Library of Congress — Complete
Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript
Sources 1745-1799 — Complete collection at the University
Peace: George Washington — Celebration of the
indispensible man of the second millenium of the common era.
Sources for pocket editions of the U.S. Constitution and other
Citizen's Rule Book, ed. Webster Adams, Whitten
Printers, 1001 S. 5th St., Phoenix, AZ 85004, 602/258-6406. Read
it online here
The U.S. Constitution, ed. Robert F. Tedeschi,
Jr., Oak Hill Publishing Co., Box 6473, Naperville, IL 60567.
Society — Coalition of conservative and libertarian
lawyers and legal scholars.
Foundation — Publishes the Policy Review.
Institute — Have volume discounts.
Constitution Center — Museum devoted to constitutional